About USC Gould
USC Gould is a top-ranked law school with a 120-year history and reputation for academic excellence. We are located on the beautiful 228-acre USC University Park Campus, just south of downtown Los Angeles.
Learn about our interdisciplinary curriculum, experiential learning opportunities and specialized areas.
USC Gould helps prepare you for a stellar legal career. You can pursue a JD degree, one of our numerous graduate and international offerings, or an online degree or certificate.
Participate in an unparalleled learning experience with diversity of people and thought. Get involved in the law school community and participate in activities that enhance your studies.
We work closely with students, graduates and employers to support successful career goals and outcomes. Our overall placement rate is consistently strong, with 94 percent of our JD class employed within 10 months after graduation.
Our faculty is distinguished for its scholarship, as well as for its commitment to teaching. Our 12:1 student-to-faculty ratio creates an intimate and collegial learning environment.
- Alumni and Giving
Jody David Armour
USC Gould School of Law
- FACULTY DIRECTORY
- LECTURERS IN LAW DIRECTORY
- EXPERTS DIRECTORY
- FACULTY IN THE NEWS
- SCHOLARSHIP AND PUBLICATIONS
- DISTINCTIONS AND AWARDS
- + CENTERS AND INITIATIVES
- CENTER FOR LAW AND PHILOSOPHY (CLP)
- CENTER FOR LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (CLASS)
- CENTER FOR LAW, HISTORY AND CULTURE (CLHC)
- CENTER FOR TRANSNATIONAL LAW AND BUSINESS (CTLB)
- INITIATIVE AND REFERENDUM INSTITUTE (IRI)
- PACIFIC CENTER FOR HEALTH POLICY AND ETHICS
- SAKS INSTITUTE FOR MENTAL HEALTH LAW, POLICY, AND ETHICS
- + WORKSHOPS AND CONFERENCES
Jody David Armour is the Roy P. Crocker Professor of Law at the University of Southern California. He has been a member of the faculty since 1995. Armour’s expertise ranges from personal injury claims to claims about the relationship between racial justice, criminal justice, and the rule of law. Armour studies the intersection of race and legal decision making as well as torts and tort reform movements.
A widely published scholar and popular lecturer, Armour is a Soros Justice Senior Fellow of The Open Society Institute’s Center on Crime, Communities and Culture. He has published articles in Stanford Law Review, California Law Review, Vanderbilt Law Review, Boston College Law Review, Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies, University of Colorado Law Review, University of Pittsburgh Law Review, Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, Southwestern University Law Review, and Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law. His book Negrophobia and Reasonable Racism: The Hidden Costs of Being Black in America (New York University Press) addresses three core concerns of the Black Lives Matter movement—namely, racial profiling police brutality, and mass incarceration. He has recently completed a second book that examines law, language, and moral luck in the criminal justice system. Armour often appears as a legal analyst on NBC, CBS, ABC, MSNBC, KPCC, KCRW, and a variety of other television and radio news programs. At the request of the US Department of State and European Embassies, Professor Armour has toured major universities in Europe to speak about social justice as well as Hip Hop culture and the law. His work on the intersection of these topics grew into a unique interdisciplinary and multimedia analysis of social justice and linguistics, titled Race, Rap and Redemption, produced by USC alumna J. M. Morris, and featuring performance by Ice Cube, Mayda del Valle, Saul Williams, Lula Washington Dance Theatre, Macy Gray Music Academy Orchestra, and Mailon Rivera.
Armour earned his AB degree in Sociology at Harvard University and his JD degree with honors from Boalt Hall Law School at UC Berkeley. Prior to joining USC, he was an associate at Morrison & Foerster, Kirkpatrick and Lockhart and taught at UC Berkeley’s Boalt Hall, Indiana University and the University of Pittsburgh.
Armour currently teaches students a diverse array of subjects, including Criminal Law, Torts, and Stereotypes and Prejudice: The Role of the Cognitive Unconscious in the Rule of Law.
- N*gga Theory: Race, Language, Unequal Justice, and the Law (Los Angeles Review of Books, 2020).
- Negrophobia & Reasonable Racism: The Hidden Costs of Being Black in America (New York University Press, 1997).
Articles and Book Chapters
- "Law, Language, and Politics." 22 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 1073 (June 2020). - (bepress)
- "Hate Speech, the N-Word, the Confederate Battle Flag, the Legal Lexicon, and the Politics of Meaning," 22 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law (March 2020).
- "Where Bias Lives in the Criminal Law and its Processes: How Judges and Jurors Socially Construct Black Criminals," 45 American Journal of Criminal Law 203 (2018). - (PDF)
- “Nigga Theory: Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity in the Substantive Criminal Law” 12 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 9 (Fall 2014). - (Hein)
- “Race Ipsa Loquitur: Of Reasonable Racists, Intelligent Bayesians, and Involuntary Negrophobes,” in Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, editors, Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge, (Temple University Press, 2013).
- “Race Ipsa Loquitur: Of Reasonable Racists, Intelligent Bayesians, and Involuntary Negrophobes,” in Sanford H. Kadish, Stephen J. Schulhofer, Carol S. Steiker, and Rachel E. Barkow, eds, Criminal Law and Its Processes: Cases and Materials, (Wolters Kluwer, 2012).
- "Toward a Tort-Based Theory of Civil Rights, Civil Liberties, and Racial Justice," 38 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 1467 (Spring 2005). - (Hein)
- "Interpretive Construction, Systemic Consistency, and Criterial Norms in Tort Law," 54 Vanderbilt Law Review 1157 (2001). - (Hein)
- "Bring the Noise," 40 Boston College Law Review 733 (May 1999). - (Hein)
- "Color-Consciousness in the Courtroom," 28 Southwestern University Law Review 281 (1999). - (Hein)
- "Critical Race Feminism: Old Wine in a New Bottle or New Legal Genre?," 7 Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies 431 (1998). - (Hein)
- "Hype and Reality in Affirmative Action (Affirmative Action: Diversity of Opinions)," 68 University of Colorado Law Review 1173 (1997). - (Hein)
- "Just Deserts: Narrative, Perspective, Choice, and Blame (Self-Defense and Relations of Domination: Moral and Legal Perspectives on Battered Women Who Kill)," 57 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 525 (1996). - (Hein)
- "Stereotypes and Prejudice: Helping Legal Decision-makers Break the Prejudice Habit," 83 California Law Review 733 (1995). - (Hein)
- "Race Ipsa Loquitur: Of Reasonable Racists, Intelligent Bayesians, and Involuntary Negrophobes," 46 Stanford Law Review 781 (1994). - (Hein)
Race, Rap, and Redemption, Visions & Voices 2007
Live Performances by Ice Cube, Saul Williams, Mayda Del Valle, Macy Gray’s Youth Orchestra, The Lula Washington Dance Theatre, and The Spirit of Troy (TMB).
Race, Rap and Redemption Reprise 2008
Abbreviated Performance featuring The Lulu Washington Dance Theatre for Incoming USC Freshmen: Writing Requirement.
What’s Race Got to Do with It? October 9, 2013
Multimedia Performance of Nigga Theory’s Conceptual Framework for California Lawyers & Judges for Continuing Legal Education (CLE) credits.
- Race, Rap, and Redemption, Visions & Voices 2007
Nigga Theory: A Brief Exploration, Directed by Khin-May Lwin, 2015
A cinematic expression of my critical race scholarship. Selected for the American Documentary Film Festival, Palm Springs, March 2015 and for Dokufest - International Documentary and Short Film Festival, Prizren (Kosovo), August 2015.
Freeway: Crack in the System, 2015
Includes scenes of Award-winning Director Marc Levin and former drug kingpin Freeway Rick Ross joining my seminar to discuss the causes and consequences of the crack plague.
- Nigga Theory: A Brief Exploration, Directed by Khin-May Lwin, 2015
FACULTY IN THE NEWS
Franita Tolson was interviewed about how federal lawsuits from North Carolina, Alabama, and Arkansas test the limits of the Voting Rights Act, the boundaries of state government authority, and the ability of voting rights groups to file racial gerrymandering cases. “These doctrines and approaches in these cases fundamentally reset the rules of the game,” she said. “In 2030 we will live in a completely different world than we lived in in 2020, and 2020 was not favorable to minority voters at all.”
"Saltwater Sovereignty: Tribal Marine Management Authority Along the Pacific Coast.” Online Environmental Law Workshop. University of Maryland School of Law, Baltimore, MD.
“Comment on Choi, Erickson, & Pritchard, ‘Coalitions among Plaintiffs’ Attorneys in Securities Class Actions’,” Conference on Empirical Legal Studies, Virtual, Toronto, ON, Canada.
“Who’s on First? The Mind-Blowing Attempt to Conceptualize Deference in the Midst of Decision Delays and Agency Repeals,” J.B. and Maurice C. Shapiro Environmental Law Symposium for the George Washington University School of Law, Virtual, Washington, D.C.